Part I – Ibrahim George Khayru’llah And Abdul Baha

  1. Reasons Which Induced Khayru’llah To Forsake Abbas Efendi And Adhere To His Brother Muhammad Ali Efendi.
  2. Biographical Sketch Of Ibrahim George Khayru’llah.
  3. Goes To Egypt In 1872′, And Becomes Acquainted With Hajii Abdul Karim Of Tihran.
  4. Conversion To Baha’i Faith In 1890
  5. Disintrested Character Of Khayr’ullah’s Work.
  6. Khayr’ullah Sails For Europe And Syria, June 1898.
  7. Khayr’ullah And A Party Of Americans Visit Akka.
  8. Reception Of Khayr’ullah By Abbas Efendi.
  9. Khayru”llah Helps To Lay The Foundation Stone Of The Bab’s Mausoleum.
  10. Discrepancies In Doctrine.
  11. Discussion On The Nature Of God’s Essence.
  12. Disinclination Of Baha’is To Argue With Khayru’llah
  13. Baha’i Scriptures Withheld From Khayrullah
  14. Growing Estrangement Between Khayru’llah And Abbas Efendi.
  15. Precautions Taken By Abbas Effendi To Prevent Strangers From Meeting His Brother.
  16. Attempt To Prejudice The American Visitors Against Muhammad Ali
  17. Deceit Sanctioned By Abbas Efendi.
  18. Prophecies Of Abbas Efendi.
  19. Another Of Abbas Efendi’s Prophecies.
  20. Khayru’llah’s Wife Leaves Him.
  21. Alleged Duplicity Of Abbas Efendi.
  22. Khayru’llah Renounces Abbas Efendi In Favour Of His Brother Muhammad Ali.
  23. Baha’i Missionaries Sent To America To Reclaim Or Confute Khayru’llah

Part -II: Abdul Baha, Baha’i Faith and E.D. Browne
Part-III: The Secret Activities Of Abdul Baha


His Holiness Mohammed Ali

His Holiness Mohammed Ali


These reasons were:

(1) Abbas Efendi’s claim to Divinity.

First, Abbas Efendi’s claim to Divinity, in that he declared himself to be the Manifestation of Service, which is the greatest of the Divine Manifestations, and peculiar to the Father, the Lord of Hosts (Jehovah) alone. This is the supreme limit of Manifestation, which none claimed save only His Holiness Baha’ (to whom be glory), who explicitly declared in numerous Tablets that He was the Servant, and the Visage and Very Self of the Eternal Essence. Again he declares himself to be the Enunciator (mubayyin), that is, God, as the Supreme Pen has explicitly declared in different passages. So like wise he claims to be the Centre of the Covenant, which is God alone, Baha, who Himself covenanted with Himself before the creation of the heavens and the earths that man should worship none save God alone; as when He says, exalted is He: ‘ Ho took the Covenant at the time of the Dawn1 from those who *believed that they should worship none but God “; and [he advanced] other pretensions which it is unnecessary to mention.

(2) His teachings inconsistent with those of Baha’u’llah.

Secondly,, that Abbas Efendi’s teachings were at variance with the teachings of His Holiness Baha’u’llah in all respects, and were contrary to reason.

(3) His duplicity.

Thirdly, that the conduct of Abbas Efendi and his daily actions were like those of a double-faced man, which is forbidden in the Scriptures.

(4) Dissension and discord produced by his actions.

Fourthly, that whereas His Holiness Baha’ullah in many passages of His works and in the Book of His Testament, commanded this community in the most categorical manner to put aside discord, to extinguish the fire of sectarian hatred, and to consort with [the adherents of ] all religions and sects in courtesy,, love. spirituality and fragrance, Abbas Efendi made naught of this most great gift and most high and glorious aim; in that he, for his private ends and personal ambitions, laid the foundations of hatred, rancour, discord and diversity amongst the People of Baha, in such wise that he produced separation and discord between brother and sister, husband and wife and father and son. We seek refuge in God the Preserver, the Almighty, from Whom help is invoked !

1. i.e. of the Manifestation or Theophany.
* page 87

The Conquest of America for the Baha’i religion by means of Dr. Ibrahim George Khayru’llah literally transcribed from what the above- mentioned Khayru’llah wrote, putting himself in the position of a third person. 1


Dr. Ibrahim George Khayru’llah was born on November 11, 1849 (26th of Dhu’l-Hijja, A.H, I265) in the villages of Muhammadun2, one of the villages of Mount Lebanon in Syria.


His father died while he was still a child at the breast3, and his mother undertook his education, placing him first in the primary schools, and then sending him to the College in Beyrout, and thence to the American University College, where, in 1870 *(A.H..1287 he obtained the degree of Bachelor of Science4. He was one of the five [students] who were the first fruits of this celebrated college.

1. Since this translation was made, Dr. Khayru’llah has published the substance of the information given below in a book entitled,

O Christians! Why do ye believe not in Christ? pp. 165-192. This book was published in 1917 in the U.S.A., probably at Chicago, though no place is specified on the title page. I cite this as the ”English Autobiography.”

2. “Behamdon ” in the English version mentioned in the last footnote.
3. When I was two years old.”
* page 72.
4. “B.A.”



In A.D. 1872 (A H. 1289) he left Syria and took up his abode in Egypt for a period of about 21 years. There he foregathered with the late Hajji Abdu’l-Karim Efendi of Tihran, one of the followers Of His Holiness Baha’u’llah (glorious is His mention!), who gave him good tidings of this Most Great Manifestation. At first he did not believe these tidings and began to study the Divine Scriptures1 with the object of demonstrating there from the falsity of this claim, and he remained an unbeliever for a number of years, until God opened his eyes and he saw the Truth as it is. Then he forwarded a letter of contrition and belief to His Holiness Baha’u’llah (glorious is His praise!), and there was revealed for him a Holy Tablet from the Heaven of Virtue gladdening him with the announcement that his cry had been heard and his request answered, and that he had been commemorated with a mention whereby [all men’s] hearts would be attracted. This happened in A.D. 1890 (A.H.1308), and the text of the above-mentioned Tablet is inserted for a blessing at the end of his book entitled Bahaullah2 ‘which he composed in the English language to prove the truth of this most great and wonderful Theophany.

In the beginning of June, 1898 (Muharram, A.H. 1316),he visited Chicago and Kenosha to investigate the condition of the believers there. Then he returned to New York, whence he went with his wife and one of the believing women, Mrs. Anna Bell, to the city of Lubeck in the State of Maine. There he spent nine weeks, engaged from six to nine hours daily in dictating orally to Mrs. Bell, while she wrote down what he dictated with the type-writer, until he had nearly completed the composition of his book entitled Beha’u’llah. At this juncture there reached him a telegram from California informing him that Mrs. Phoebe Hearst wanted him and his wife to meet her at New York to go with her as her guests to ‘Akka to visit the tomb of His Holiness Baha’u’llah (to whom be’ glory ), and to meet the members of the Holy Family. He accepted this invitation, returned to New York, and prepared for the journey.

1. Mrs. Sara G. Herron. Op. cit., p. 170
2. “About twenty five souls.”


Khayru’llah carried on his missionary and evangelizing efforts amongst the people in America for love of God without any remuneration at all, so that *he used even to refuse the presents which were offered to him. This rule he made binding, on himself and on all the evangelists, male and female, whom he appointed to teach. He used to earn his livelihood by his lawful profession, which was the healing of the sick, and oftentimes he expended his own private property [in such ways] as the hire of premises for assemblies of the believers and evangelizing work.


Towards the end of June, 1898@ (Muharram, A.H. 1316) Ibrahim Khayru’llah sailed in the steamer “Furst Bismarck” in company with Mrs. Phoebe Hearst. He stayed some days in Paris, where he completed the conversion of the above mentioned lady by giving her and some of her attendants the Most Great Name. He also explicitly instructed such of the believers as dwelt in England and France and had received the Most Great Name to preach the Advent of the Father and His Kingdom upon earth. In this way was inaugurated this Most Great Evangel amongst the Christians of Europe.

* Page 76.
@ “In July, 1898.” Op. Cit., p. 171


After this he traveled alone from Paris making for ‘Akka. He disembarked at Alexandria in Egypt to visit his two daughters, who were living there at that time with their grandmother, stayed with them three weeks, preached the Doctrine to them and converted them. Thence they followed him to ‘Akka to perform a visitation. So likewise Mrs. Hearst and those who accompanied her arrived in successive parties, one after another, at Akka, the total number of American visitors1 together with his own family amounting to sixteen persons.

Ibrahim Khayru’llah’s stay in ‘Akka and Hayfa somewhat exceeded six months, in the course of which important events happened, some of which it is necessary to mention for the making plain of the truth.


About twenty-four hours after he had disembarked, he set off from Hayfa in a carriage with *Husayn the Persian, of the village of Khamna, a dependency of Tabriz, who had been appointed by Abbas Efendi to meet the pilgrims and the two went together to Akka and alighted at the house where dwelt His Holiness ‘Abbas Efendi. There, in the reception-room on the upper floor, ‘Abbas Efendi entered and greeted Khayru’llah, saying, ” Welcome to the friend ! ” Then he clasped him to his breast and kissed him, saying, “Welcome to thee, O Baha’s Peter, O second Columbus, Conqueror of America!” Then he sat down talking to him kindly and affectionately, and asking him about the pilgrims who went coming from America, and about the believers there. Then he asked him to stay with him in the house, and he agreed thereto and stayed there. And on the next day a military officer came and put a fez on Khayru’llah’s head instead of a hat, saying to him, “Verily Abbas Efendi has ordered this fez for Baha’s Peter, Columbus the Second, the Conqueror of America.” After this the believers there began to send congratulations on this distinction, calling him at one time Columbus the Second, Conqueror of America, and at another Baha’s Peter.

When Abbas Efendi brought Khayru’llah into the room wherein was deposited the body of His Holiness our Master Baha’u’llah, he told him that he was the first pilgrim to whom the door of this chamber had been opened for entrance” thereunto and to perform the ceremonies prescribed for the visitation. And thereafter he begun to open it for the entrance of other pilgrims.


Another of the distinctions which he enjoyed was the that, one day Abbas Efendi came to Hayfa and alighted at the house in which Khayru’llah was lodging with his family, and invited him to accompany him to Mount Carmel to participate with him in laying the foundation-stone of the mausoleum which was to be erected to receive the body of the ” First Point ” His Holiness the Bab, this honour being assigned to him instead of to Abbas Efendi’s brother “the Most Great Branch” Muhammad Ali Efendi.

*So they went together, and then on Mount Carmel Abbas Efendi took a pick-axe and gave Khayru’llah another pick-axe, which one of the attendants had brought for this purpose, and, after asking help from God, they both began to dig the foundations, while the servant who was present removed the excavated earth. Thus the Work continued for a few minutes, when Abbas Efendi laid aside his pick-axe and ordered Khayru’llah to do likewise. Then he said to him, “This is an honour which none of the believers except thee has enjoyed.” And he kept praising his action and his instruction of the Americans before the assembly of the believers and often did he make mention thereof in his writings. He also entitled him “the Shepherd of God’s flocks in America,” and presented him with the works of His Holiness Baha (to whom be glory !). As for Abbas Efendi’s followers they, treated Khayru’llah with all kindness and affection.

It is worth mentioning here that Her Holiness Bahiyya Khanim “the Blessed Leaf,” the sister of Abbas Efendi, gave Khayrullah her book, which was written in a beautiful hand and contained a number of Holy Tablets revealed by the Supreme Pen; and told him that it was a present from her to Baha’s Peter, the Conqueror of America, who had wrought for the extension of the Faith what no other of the missionaries had achieved. And he thanked her, and put it by with other precious Writings.

Notwithstanding that Khayru’llah had repeatedly begged His Holiness Abbas Efendi before he went to visit him to send him a volume of the Holy Verses which had been revealed by the Supreme Pen so that he might compare them with his teachings, in order to guard against the incidence of error, and His Holiness Abbas Efendi had promised him this, yet he sent him nothing of what he had demanded. So Khayru’llah determined when he went to Akka to attain this supreme aim, to wit the acquisition of knowledge at first hand; and, whenever he foregathered with Abbas Efendi he used *to explain to him the teachings which he gave to the Americans, even translating lengthy sections thereof, and asking His Holiness to correct what was erroneous. But His Holiness confirmed them and praised them publicly before all the believers, both Easterns and Americans. He repeatedly declared explicitly to the American pilgrims that all which Khayru’llah had taught was correct; but whenever he had explained to the Americans any matter, and afterwards understood that his explanation was not in accordance with that given by Khayru’llah, be used to avoid disagreement saying that everything had two meanings one spiritual and the other material, and that the explanations given to them-by himself and by Khayru’llah were both correct.

1. “Of visitors who were originally Christians.” Op. Cit., p.172..
* page77.


Now since His Holiness Abbas Efendi used to postpone the explanation of the questions which Khayru’llah put to him, excusing himself on the ground of the multiplicity of his affairs, Khayru’llah took to propounding them to the missionaries (muballighin) who were there at that time, such as Ibnul Abhar1 and his followers, and there appeared between them the most complete difference of opinion on numerous important matters, such as the immortality of the human spirit, and the question of the “return” (rij’at) or coming back [to the life of the world], etc. So Abbas Efendi appointed a special time for the hearing of the two parties and the pronouncing of judgement.


Alter long discussions His Holiness Abbas Efendi said to Khayru’llah, “Verily the argument which you have advanced is plausible, but your assertion that God’s Essence is limited by His Essence is a sheer error.” So Khayru’llah begged that he might hear the proof to establish this, saying,” Since everything which is known is limited, and since God knows all things, and since He is necessarily known to His Essence by His Essence, therefore it is possible to say, without incurring the charge of error, that God’s Essence is limited by His Essence, since He is known to Himself.”

But Abbas Efendi answered saying, “It is necessary that no difference [of opinion] should arise between thee and the learned men of Persia, and therefore it is necessary that *thou shouldst say that God is unlimited, and that He is exempt from the attributes of His creatures.” To this Khayru’llah answered saying, “O Sir, is not the statement that God is exempt from [the attributes of] His creatures in itself also a kind of limitation? ” Then Abbas Efendi’s countenance changed, and he regarded Khayru’llah with a frown: then he smiled, and rose up saying, ” We will return to this discussion some other time, if (God please.” Thus did he close the first and last conference on these matters.

1. Probably identical with “Ibn Abhar” mentioned at pg. 426 of my Persian Revolution.
* page 80


After this conference there came about an evident change in the treatment of Khayru’llah by the missionaries (muballighin) and their followers, and by some of the American pilgrims, and amongst them his wife, who was with him on this visit. When he asked one of the missionaries about any religious question, the answer would be that His Holiness Abbas Efendi alone was able to explain these questions, and that Khayru’llah must ask him. Butt when an opportunity occurred and he asked Abbas Efendi about it, His Holiness would postpone his reply until some other occasion.


Then Khayru’llah requested Abbas Efendi to obtain for him the books which had been printed n India by command of His Holiness Bahaullah (to whom be glory) and in his days; but he did not grant this request, saying, “These books are not to be found in ‘Akka.” Khayru’llah obtained them in Egypt whilst he was returning to America.


Then there occurred numerous unpleasant events during the visit, which, if they did not shake the faith of Khayru’llah and his two daughters in the truth of this Most Great Theophany, did none the less trouble the cup of their joy and caused them to wonder at the arbitrary conduct of ‘Abbas Efendi.

Only after their return to America did God open their eyes so that they saw the Truth as it is. Then indeed they began to call so mind these events, and to wonder how they failed to understand them at the time, and to realize the truth that *the apprehension of facts and the understanding of them only come by degrees and with time. And in order to make known the Truth Khayru’llah mentioned some of these occurrences, as will be seen, but drew a veil over many of them from motives of courtesy.

• pg. 81


One feature of the policy of Abbas Efendi was to attach to every pilgrim who came to ‘Akka men of his own faction, to consort with that stranger-pilgrim with the utmost kindness and tenderness, wait upon him, remain with him night and day, and accompany him wherever he went. Thus passed the days of his visit without the pilgrim being able to meet one of the Holy Family or their followers, so that he would return without being informed of the truth of the matter, or of the causes of the dissension which had arisen between Abbas Efendi and Muhammad Ali Efendi. But if any one [of the pilgrims] was so bold as to ask His Holiness Abbas Efendi to permit him to meet his brother Muhammad Ali Efendi or his followers, he would grant such permission to the seeker, with a smiling and cheerful countenance, to go to meet his brother Muhammad’Ali Efendi, expressing an eager desire to he reconciled with his brother; but at the same time he would hint to the enquirer that there was absolutely nothing to be gained by this action of his. Then he would enjoin his partisans and attendants to make it clear to that pilgrim that it would be a great mistake for him to foregather with Muhammad Ali Efendi, or any of his followers, or to speak with them, and that it was one of the things which would distress the sensibilities of Abbas Efendi. So the pilgrim would refuse to meet anyone of the rival faction, even as happened to Khayru’llah himself, when be refused to meet His Holiness the Branch (Ghusn) Badi’ullah Efendi when the latter came to call upon him at the inn where he was staying in the city of Hayfa. For he refused to meet the above mentioned Badi’u’llah Efendi, in consequence of *what had been suggested to him by His Holiness Abbas Efendi and his followers.

In consequence of what has just been set forth, none of all the American pilgrims went to interview His Holiness Muhammad Ali Efendi, or Her Holiness the Mother of the” Branches ” (Aghsan).


Besides what has been mentioned, Abbas Efendi used to take every opportunity in the presence of Khayru’llah to rise up and speak amongst his followers and attendants, and in the presence of the pilgrims and the Americans, explaining to them how he was wronged, and the vexations which he daily suffered at the hands of the Government and its agents, the origin of all of which he ascribed to the treacherous intrigues of his brother Muhammad Ali Efendi, inciting them to avenge him, inspiring in their minds angry suspicions and the very spirit of hatred and enmity, and relating to them stories to the prejudice of the Members of the Holy House, at which the natural instinct revolted. So like wise his followers also imitated his procedure, communicating to the pilgrims the infamies which they ascribe to the Members of the Holy House. Consequently some of the American pilgrims communicated these scandalous stories to the believers in America after their return from ‘Akka.

Is not such conduct diametrically opposed to the Baha’i Spirit and Truth, to the Christian Spirit, and to the Spirit of the Prophets and Apostles ?

* page 82


The political sagacity of Abbas Efendi and the ways in which he meets the pilgrims with every display of affection, and the proffering of abundant distinctions and honours to them, as likewise his training of his followers and attendants to manifest towards him and also the pilgrims tender love, kindness and complete humility, assure him an absolute sovereignty over their intellects and win for him their blind confidence, so that they regard him *as great and perfect to such a degree that if he bids them perform actions which God hath declared unlawful, they do them unwittingly. As an instance of this, Abbas Efendi invited Colonel Bedri Bey, the commanding officer of the Turkish troops there, to partake of food at his table with the American pilgrims who were there at that time. Before they entered the dining room, however, Abbas Efendi commanded them through their interpreter at the time, Bahiyya the daughter of Khayru’llah, to deny all knowledge of the French language if Bedri Bey should desire to converse with them in that tongue. So when all were gathered at the table, Bedri Bey enquired if any of the Americans was conversant with the French language, for if so he would like to converse with them in it, since he did not know English. In obedience to Abbas Efendi’s command they all denied such knowledge, though four of these respected ladies spoke French very well, namely, Mrs. Hearst, Mrs. Kruper, Mrs. Thornbourg and Mrs. Aberson. Verily God and His servants cannot teach their followers to deny the truth, for assuredly a lie is hateful in God’s sight, whatever be the object in view, and truly what God hath forbidden cannot become right.

* page 83


Amongst those events which can hardly be believed is that one day when we were sitting at table, Abbas Efendi, addressing his remarks to some of the most respected of the American pilgrims, described to them certain important events in their past lives of which he was already cognizant by means of one of the American pilgrims1 who wrote them down, desiring that they should be translated into Arabic for the information of Abbas Efendi. Then he addressed his conversation to one of the notable and respected ladies and prophesied to her about the life of her son in the future and the renown he would attain, saying, “After ten thousand years his journal will be sent *as a present of great price from one king, to another king.” After he rose from the table, Khayru’llah approached him and showed how unfavorably he had been impressed by what had happened. But Abbas Efendi, smiling, laid his hand on Khayru’llah ‘s shoulder, and said to him, ” Verily this was for a good reason which thou canst not understand at present.”


Amongst his prophecies was also the following. We were with him at table when of the American pilgrims2 asked him to permit then to take his photograph, for it had never been taken save when he was a young man of twenty-seven in A.H. 1284 (A.D. 1867). He refused, however, to grant permission, saying that it would only be taken when his Father’s crown3 should be placed on his head and he should be led forth to martyrdom, when thousands of rifle bullets should pierce his body. His words had a great effect, so that some of the auditors wept bitterly4. So likewise in his writings and speeches he laments and mourns on account of the vexations and calamities which have befallen and will befall him in God’s Way. And this he did that men’s hearts might incline towards him, and that he might stir in them sentiments of compassion and partisanship.

1. Mr. Getsinger. Op. cit, p. 177
* page 84.
2. Mr. Getsinger. Op. Cit., p. 178.
3. Taj, i.e. in this case the tall felt cap which Bahaullah used to wear.
4. He has been photographed many times since, and his prophecy has not been fulfilled.” . Op. Cit., p. 178.


And amongst the things which awakened Khayru’llah to the double-faced policy of Abbas Efendi was that when he arrived with his wife and his two daughters at port Said in Egypt on their return from the pilgrimage [to ‘Akka] en route for America, his wife left him and traveled alone without saying one word to them or fulfilling the formalities of leave-taking. Those who beheld this were amazed thereat, having regard to the fact that Abbas Efendi, when he bade them farewell, emphatically enjoined on them that they should live together in love and concord.


Another thing which warned Khayru’llah and generated doubt in his heart was the letter which reached him two months after his return to America from Abbas Efendi, written in Abbas Efendi’s own handwriting and signed with his [usual] Signature “aa” [the initials of ‘Abbas Abdul Baha’]; which *letter is preserved and can be produced when necessary. This letter is a reply to a letter sent by Khayru’llah from Paris to Abbas Efendi asking him to make known in what way he desired Mrs. Hearst to send him the money which she had promised to send. For when Mrs. Hearst met Khayru’llah in Paris as he was returning from the pilgrimage [to ‘Akka], she asked him to correspond with Abbas Efendi about this. So there came to hint this letter above-mentioned, wherein Abbas Efendi praised him in the most exaggerated terms, ascribing to him lofty qualities wherewith none should be credited save only the Divine Manifestations. Such, for instance, were his words: “Verily thou art a centre of the Circle of God’s Love, the pivot of consecration and humility to God.” Now as regards the men of God, the world and the treasures which it contains preoccupy them not, so that if one of them passes by a valley of pure gold, his spirit cloth not incline to take anything therefrom; nor is it possible, things being so, that money should impel him. to write praise like that recorded above, which tore the veil from the eyes of Khayru’llah, So that he saw the Truth and comprehended this double-faced policy. More particularly, he discovered after careful investigation that Abbas Efendi, before the time when he wrote this panegyric, had written another letter censuring Khayru’llah, which had been communicated to some of the American pilgrims who were there at the time, and who, after their return, communicated it to the American believers as it had been revealed to them by Abbas Efendi.

* page 85


From this moment Khayru’llah began to read the Holy Verses, to compare therewith Abbas Efendi’s claims, acts and teachings, to weigh them in the balance of reason, and to measure them with the measure of the Holy Law revealed from the Supreme Pen. [Having done so] he found no escape from abandoning Abbas Efendi and thereafter turning towards His Holiness the Most Great Branch [al-Ghusnul-Akbar] Muhammad Ali Efendi. in obedience to the command contained in the Book of my Testament. So ere seven months had elapsed from the time of his pilgrimage Ibrahim Khayru’llah joined himself to the ranks of His Holiness Muhammad Ali Efendi, and about three hundred of the believers in Chicago and Kenosha followed him. and likewise a small number from every city wherein believers were to be found. Most of the believers however. continued to follow Abbas Efendi.


Now as for the emissaries and ambassadors, ‘Abdul Karim of Tihran, Asadullah of Isfahan, Haji Mirza Hasan of Khurasan, Miirza Abu l-Fazl of Gulpayagan and their followers, whom Abbas Efendi sent to America with the object of bringing back Khayru’llah to him, and what he suffered at their hands and from the American followers of Abbas Efendi in the way of divers vexations and lying rumours, all these matters will be mentioned, if it please God, in another book which shall be a memorial from which shall be diffused the fragrance of patience, forbearance and steadfastness in God’s religion.


(“Materials for the study of Babi Religion”by Renowned historian EDWARD BROWNE.M.A., M.B., F.B.A., F.R.C.P.; Sir Thomas Adams’ Professor of Arabic and Fellow of Pembroke College in the University of Cambridge, Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (Cambridge: University Press, 1918)

Digitally Reprinted: East Lansing, Mi.: H-Bahai, 2002


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